Author: Michelson NJ, Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Ludwig KA8, Kozai TDY
Title: Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency dependence, temporal fidelity, and activation density
Summary: Electrical stimulation of the brain has become a mainstay of fundamental neuroscience research and an increasingly prevalent clinical therapy. Despite decades of use in basic neuroscience research and the growing prevalence of neuromodulation therapies, gaps in knowledge regarding activation or inactivation of neural elements over time have limited its ability to adequately interpret evoked downstream responses or fine-tune stimulation parameters to focus on desired responses. In this work, in vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image neuronal calcium activity in layer 2/3 neurons of somatosensory cortex (S1) in male C57BL/6J-Tg(Thy1-GCaMP6s)GP4.3Dkim/J mice during 30 s of continuous electrical stimulation at varying frequencies. We show frequency-dependent differences in spatial and temporal somatic responses during continuous stimulation. Our results elucidate conflicting results from prior studies reporting either dense spherical activation of somas biased toward those near the electrode, or sparse activation of somas at a distance via axons near the electrode. These findings indicate that the neural element specific temporal response local to the stimulating electrode changes as a function of applied charge density and frequency. These temporal responses need to be considered to properly interpret downstream circuit responses or determining mechanisms of action in basic science experiments or clinical therapeutic applications.
Source: J Neurosci Res. 2018 Dec 26. [Epub ahead of print]